Non-Standard Typography Use Over Time: Signs of a Lack of Literacy or Symbolic Capital?

  • Asta Zelenkauskaite Drexel University
  • Amy L. Gonzales Indiana University- Bloomington
Keywords: Mobile texting, Non-standard typography, Literacy, Symbolic Capital, quantitative content analysis, SMS, short-message service


New technologies have provoked a debate regarding the role of non-standard typography (e.g. !!!, :-*). Some contend that new technologies undermine literacy while others state that new technologies provide new spaces for expressive writing and signal a form of symbolic capital. While previous research has primarily focused on age and gender to account for non-standard typography, we analyze socio-economic variables – education and income level and the use of NST over time. This study entertains these two competing hypotheses by analyzing non-standard typography in text message exchanges over three and a half months in an underprivileged population: people living in an urban public housing. Data reveal that, within this sample, use of NST increased over time and participants with higher education levels were more likely to use non-standard typography than less educated counterparts. Experience with texting was found to mediate this effect. Findings support a symbolic capital hypothesis of non-standard typography use, suggesting NST is not associated with stigmatizing lack of knowledge or literacy, but rather may signal the knowledge of discourse norms ascribed to texting in a community.

Author Biographies

Asta Zelenkauskaite, Drexel University
Asta Zelenkauskaite is an Assistant Professor of communication at Drexel University. Her research examines the emergent user practices in online contexts. Particularly, she focuses on user-centric approaches to ICTs use to identify the needs of the users and their communities.
Amy L. Gonzales, Indiana University- Bloomington

Amy L. Gonzales is an Assistant Professor of communication science in the Media School at Indiana University- Bloomington. Her research examines the health and well-being benefits of using digital technologies and the consequences of having that access disrupted.  She is especially interested in these experiences for people from marginalized communities.

How to Cite
Zelenkauskaite, A., & Gonzales, A. (2017). Non-Standard Typography Use Over Time: Signs of a Lack of Literacy or Symbolic Capital?. The Journal of Community Informatics, 13(1). Retrieved from