Are the Users Driving, and How Open is Open? Experiences from Living Lab and User Driven Innovation projects
This article reflects on the experiences of three projects in Helsinki, Finland, that we have participated in and that have aimed to develop organic connections between technology development and local communities of people. Based on this experience, we describe some issues that highlight how the goals of Open User Driven Innovation are not easily realized in the Living Lab projects. Our experience suggests that instead of the current producer and business focused model, a people and practices focused direction for R&D activities should be developed and adopted in order to realize the high ideals that Living Labs are founded on.
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